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    UC Malaria Research

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    الفارس النبيل
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام §*)§®¤*~ˆ°
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام  §*)§®¤*~ˆ°

    ذكر
    عدد الرسائل : 1913
    العمر : 30
    المكان : في الطريق إلى واحة الحب والامان
    الوظيفة : طالب في كلية العلوم
    الهوايات : القراءة- الشعر- الموسيقى- الكمبيوتر- كل ما هو مثير
    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/12/2006

    UC Malaria Research

    مُساهمة من طرف الفارس النبيل في الأحد نوفمبر 11, 2007 9:48 am

    UC Malaria Research

    and Control Group

    vows to defeat malaria
    Twenty-one
    scientists from five UC campuses are partnering with the Mosquito and
    Vector Control Association of California to defeat one of the world’s
    oldest and deadliest diseases: malaria.

    Malaria
    infects some 350 to 500 million people a year, killing between 1
    million and 2.5 million, according to the World Health Organization.
    Ninety percent of the global incidence of malaria occurs in Africa,
    where a child dies from the disease every 30 seconds.

    The
    UC Malaria Research and Control Group (MRCG) vows to change that. The
    group, formed in February 2006, is a branch of the UC Mosquito Research
    Program, a statewide program of the UC Division of Agriculture and
    Natural Resources.

    “We’re
    firmly committed to defeating the most formidable and challenging
    mosquito-borne disease,” says medical entomologist and MRCG director
    Gregory Lanzaro, who also directs the UC Mosquito Research Program and
    the UC Davis Center for Vectorborne Diseases.
    “This is all about
    saving lives,” Lanzaro says. “It’s the right thing to do. We are
    combining compassion, technology and science to defeat a killer.”

    Malaria,
    first recognized 4,000 years ago and eradicated in the United States in
    the early 1950s, has been eliminated in many parts of Asia, Europe and
    the Americas, but is raging uncontrolled in many parts of Africa,
    Lanzaro says. “The spike can be attributed to more efficient mosquito
    vectors, increased pesticide and drug resistance, and socioeconomic
    factors, including struggling health systems.”

    Malaria
    threatens more than 100 countries and territories, with more than 40%
    of the world’s population at risk, according to the U.S. Centers for
    Disease Control and Prevention. Children under age 5 and pregnant women
    are most susceptible.

    Lanzaro, who researches Anopheles gambiae,
    the principal vector of malaria in Africa, says the most deadly
    parasite is Plasmodium falciparum. It can kill within hours of
    noticeable symptoms, which include high fever, severe headache,
    drowsiness, delirium and confusion. The malaria mosquitoes bite at
    night, usually between 10 p.m. and 4 a.m.

    Focus on research and education

    At its organizational meeting in May 2006, MRCG agreed to focus on
    academic research, education and public service. Its mission is
    three-fold: facilitate collaborative activities, including organized
    research and training; mitigate the malaria burden in Africa; and
    provide technical advice to public health agencies on malaria control
    programs, based on mosquito abatement in Africa.

    Individual members of MRCG are involved in eight African partnerships and two research-
    training grants.

    Basic
    researchers study mosquito molecular genetics, population genomics and
    the ecology of malaria vectors, mosquito mating biology, and the
    genetics of immunology and biochemistry of A.gambiae/P. falciparum interactions.

    Applied research involves the evaluation of existing insecticide-based
    control strategies, the development of novel mosquito attractants, new
    assays for the detection of metabolic insecticide resistance in
    mosquitoes, the role of agricultural insecticide use in the development
    of resistance in mosquitoes, the mass-rearing of A. gambiae, and models for malaria associated with rice agriculture.

    Lanzaro
    and UC Davis medical entomologist Anthony Cornel of the UC Mosquito
    Research Laboratory, located at the Kearney Agricultural Center in
    Parlier, have conducted fieldwork in Africa for more than 15 years,
    zeroing in on insecticide and drug resistance and population genetics.
    Last summer, medical entomologist Shirley Luckhart, a UC Davis School
    of Medicine faculty member, and entomology graduate students Tara
    Thiemann and Lisa Reimer joined them in Mali. Cornel, a native of South
    Africa, and Thiemann also worked in Cameroon last summer.

    Funded by a National Institutes of Health grant, Lanzaro is researching the complex genetic structure of A. gambiae.
    “Using DNA markers we have been able to demonstrate that subpopulations
    of this mosquito exist in nature that do not interbreed and therefore
    do not exchange genes,” Lanzaro says. “These subpopulations often exist
    even within a single village. This has important consequences to
    understand patterns of resistance to insecticides that form the basis
    of malaria control campaigns.”

    Cornel’s
    work focuses on understanding environmental exposures to insecticides
    and the various mechanisms responsible for mosquito resistance to
    insecticides. This includes developing field assays to monitor
    resistance, an important factor in malaria control programs.

    Luckhart’s
    research is aimed at understanding the relationship between malaria
    parasites and their mosquito vectors. “Her work is improving our
    understanding of why some mosquitoes are capable of transmitting this
    deadly parasite, while others do not,” Lanzaro says.

    Delegations to Tanzania, the White House

    A four-member MRCG delegation, led by Lanzaro and Cornel, journeyed to
    Tanzania in mid-October to develop collaborations and build
    partnerships for malaria control and research. “Malaria is the leading
    cause of death in both children and adults in Tanzania,” Lanzaro says.
    “In 2003, the most recent year for which information is available,
    there were more than 10 million cases of malaria in Tanzania.”

    The
    delegation included two representatives from the Mosquito Vector and
    Control Association of California: Major Dhillon, manager of the
    Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District, Corona; and Steve
    Mulligan, who manages the Consolidated Mosquito Abatement District,
    Selma.

    Lanzaro
    also represented MRCG at the Dec. 14, 2006, White House Summit on
    Malaria, which brought together international experts; corporations and
    foundations; African civic leaders; and voluntary, faith-based and
    nonprofit organizations. The goal is to raise awareness of malaria and
    to mobilize a grassroots effort to save millions of lives in Africa.
    President Bush declared April 25 as Malaria Day.

    In
    response, Lanzaro has organized the first-ever Malaria Awareness Day
    symposium on the UC Davis campus for April 25, gathering members of the
    scientific community to discuss malaria and the UC Davis commitment to
    global health. Topics will range from the history of malaria in
    California to current novel malaria-control strategies in Africa.

    Speaking
    on the history of malaria in California will be Robert K. Washino,
    professor and chair emeritus of the UC Davis entomology department, and
    co-author of Mosquitoes of California.

    “Malaria,”
    Washino says, “will continue to be of concern to residents of
    California due to continued travel outside the United States by
    civilian and military personnel, immigration policies and most
    recently, the potential effect of global warming on mosquito-parasite
    interactions involved in malaria transmission.” — Kathy Keatley Garvey



    Shirley
    Luckhart, a UC Davis medical entomologist, traveled to Mali in summer
    2006 as part of the UC Mosquito Research and Control Group’s efforts to
    wipe out malaria, a devastating mosquito-borne disease. Photo by Anthony Cornel.


    _________________
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    الفارس النبيل
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام §*)§®¤*~ˆ°
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام  §*)§®¤*~ˆ°

    ذكر
    عدد الرسائل : 1913
    العمر : 30
    المكان : في الطريق إلى واحة الحب والامان
    الوظيفة : طالب في كلية العلوم
    الهوايات : القراءة- الشعر- الموسيقى- الكمبيوتر- كل ما هو مثير
    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/12/2006

    رد: UC Malaria Research

    مُساهمة من طرف الفارس النبيل في الأحد نوفمبر 11, 2007 9:49 am

    UC Malaria Research and Control Group





    News:

    Planning the UC Davis Malaria Awareness Day

    Speakers Call Malaria a Global Disaster



    The University of California Malaria Research and Control Group (UC
    MRCG) was formed in February 2006 to battle malaria in Africa. It is
    part of the UC Mosquito Research Program, a systemwide program of the UC Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    About Malaria



    Malaria,
    one of the world's oldest and deadliest diseases, kills a child in
    Africa every 10 to 15 seconds, or some 8000 children per day. Globally,
    this mosquito-borne disease causes more than 500 million acute
    illnesses and some 2.5 to 3 million deaths annually. The World Health
    Organization (WHO) estimates that 90 percent of the global incidence of
    malaria occurs in Africa, home of the three most effective vectors.
    Nine out of 10 deaths are among sub-Saharan children below age 5.



    Malaria is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. In Africa, Anopheles gambiae is the most efficient vector for the disease.


    Program Faculty and Collaborators

    MRCG is a 21-member group comprised of leading UC mosquito vector
    biologists and California mosquito abatement experts. UC campuses
    represented are UC Davis, UC Riverside, UC Irvine and UCLA.


    Current Activities

    Current activities include African partnerships, basic research, applied research and education.



    • Message from UC MRCG Director

      Medical entomologist Gregory Lanzaro says UC MRCG is "firmly committed
      to defeating the most formidable and challenging mosquito-borne
      diseases. We believe that the realization of this goal will require
      close collaboration between academic research scientists and
      'on-the-ground' mosquito control practitioners."
    • Message from MVCAC Director

      Christopher Voight of the Mosquito and Vector Control Association of
      California says the state's mosquito abatement experts are poised and
      ready to work in Africa. The program, widely regarded as one of the
      most effective in the world, has greatly limited or eliminated the
      transmission of once-common mosquito-borne diseases, including malaria.


    Our Brochure



    The UC Malaria Research and Control Group compiled a brochure describing who we are and what we do.



    • Malaria Research and Control in Africa: Information about the Program (PDF)
    • Who We Are: Information about the Program Faculty and Collaborators (PDF)


    _________________
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    الفارس النبيل
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام §*)§®¤*~ˆ°
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام  §*)§®¤*~ˆ°

    ذكر
    عدد الرسائل : 1913
    العمر : 30
    المكان : في الطريق إلى واحة الحب والامان
    الوظيفة : طالب في كلية العلوم
    الهوايات : القراءة- الشعر- الموسيقى- الكمبيوتر- كل ما هو مثير
    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/12/2006

    رد: UC Malaria Research

    مُساهمة من طرف الفارس النبيل في الأحد نوفمبر 11, 2007 9:49 am

    UC Davis to Mark Malaria Awareness Day on April 25



    Sidebar: UC Davis Groups Planning Fundraisers





    DAVIS—A Malaria Awareness Day
    symposium on Wednesday, April 25 at the University of California, Davis
    will spotlight the severity of malaria, the history of malaria in
    California, and the UC commitment to global health.
    The UC Davis Center for Vectorborne Diseases will host the symposium from noon to 2:30 p.m. in the Main Theatre,
    Wright Hall, to “educate the campus community and general public about
    one of the world’s oldest and deadliest diseases,” said medical
    entomologist and center director Gregory Lanzaro.


    The event, free and open to the public, is part of Malaria Awareness Day activities throughout the world.


    “Malaria,
    a parasitic disease transmitted by mosquitoes, is a public health
    problem in more than 100 countries, or 40 percent of the global
    population,” Lanzaro said. “It kills a child in Africa every 30
    seconds.”


    Chancellor Larry Vanderhoef will deliver
    introductory remarks, focusing on the UC commitment to global health.
    Speakers from the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis
    Department of Entomology, UC Davis School of Medicine and the UC San
    Francisco School of Medicine will address the issue, the research under
    way, and what the general public can do to help.


    “Worldwide,
    malaria causes some 350-500 million illnesses annually and more than
    one million die,” said Lanzaro, who attended the White House Summit on Malaria
    last December, when President Bush declared April 25 as Malaria Day.
    “Malaria is particularly devastating in Africa. Most susceptible are
    children under five and pregnant women.”


    The Center for
    Vectorborne Diseases includes researchers from the UC Davis College of
    Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, UC Davis School of Veterinary
    Medicine and the UC Davis School of Medicine.


    The UC Davis Malaria Day program:



    • Introduction

      Chancellor Larry Vanderhoef
    • What Is Malaria? Malaria in Africa

      Shirley Luckhart, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, UC Davis School of Medicine
    • Socio-Economic Impact of Malaria in Africa

      Carol Medlin, UC San Francisco School of Medicine's Institute for Global Health
    • History of Malaria in California

      Robert Washino, UC Davis Department of Entomology
    • Current and Novel Malaria Control Strategies

      Anthony Cornel, UC Davis Department of Entomology
    • Malaria Research and Training Opportunities at UC Davis

      Gregory Lanzaro, director of the UC Davis Center for Vectorborne
      Diseases, UC Mosquito Research Program and the UC Malaria Research and
      Control Group
    • UC Partnership with California Mosquito Control Programs

      Steve Mulligan, manager, Consolidated Mosquito Abatement District,
      Selma, and member of the UC Malaria Research and Control Group
    • Global Health in the Context of New Public Health Programs at UC Davis

      Marc Schenker, director, Center for Occupational and Environmental
      Health, UC Davis, and professor of public health sciences, UC Davis
      School of Medicine
    • White House Summit on Malaria Video: The Gift of Growing Up
    • Concluding Remarks

      Gregory Lanzaro




    Four of the speakers—Lanzaro, Cornel, Luckhart and Mulligan—are members
    of the UC Malaria Research and Control Group (UC MRCG), comprised of 21
    scientists from five UC campuses and mosquito abatement experts from
    the Mosquito and Vector Control Association of California. Formed in February 2006, the group is part of the UC Mosquito Research Program, a statewide program of the UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.



    Lanzaro, Cornel and Luckhart, all medical entomologists, conduct field
    work in Africa. Mulligan participated in the four-member UC MRCG
    delegation that traveled to Tanzania last summer to develop
    collaborations and build partnerships for malaria control and research.
    The delegation, led by Lanzaro and Cornel, also included Major Dhillon,
    manager of the Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District, Corona.



    Carol Medlin, a UC San Francisco School of Medicine faculty member at the Institute for Global Health
    in the Department of Anthropology, History, and Social Medicine,
    conducts research on behavioral and treatment practices for malaria in
    Vanuatu on a grant funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. She
    co-authored the final report of the external review of the Roll Back
    Malaria international partnership, "Achieving Impact: Roll Back Malaria
    in the Next Phase."



    Medical entomologist Robert Washino, emeritus professor and former chair of the UC Davis Department of Entomology, co-authored Mosquitoes of California. His presentation will include malaria cases in California.



    Schenker, who directs the Center for Occupational and Environmental Health and the UC Western Center for Agricultural Health and Safety,
    both at UC Davis, focuses his research on a wide range of occupational
    and environmental health hazards, including the toxic effects of
    pesticides and other agricultural chemicals.


    Malaria,
    first recognized 4,000 years ago and eradicated in the United States in
    the early 1950s, has been eliminated in many parts of Asia, Europe and
    the Americas, but is raging uncontrolled in sub-Saharan Africa, Lanzaro
    said. He attributes the spike to more efficient mosquito vectors,
    increased pesticide and drug resistance, and socio-economic factors,
    including struggling health systems. —By [email]Kathy Keatley Garvey[/email].











    Chancellor Larry Vanderhoef
    Greg Lanzaro
    Shirley Luckhart
    Anthony Cornel













    Robert Washino
    Carol Medlin
    Marc Schenker
    Steve Mulligan



    Web sites:

    UC Mosquito Research Program

    Lanzaro Vector Genetics Lab

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Malaria No More

    World Health Organization


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    الفارس النبيل
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام §*)§®¤*~ˆ°
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام  §*)§®¤*~ˆ°

    ذكر
    عدد الرسائل : 1913
    العمر : 30
    المكان : في الطريق إلى واحة الحب والامان
    الوظيفة : طالب في كلية العلوم
    الهوايات : القراءة- الشعر- الموسيقى- الكمبيوتر- كل ما هو مثير
    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/12/2006

    رد: UC Malaria Research

    مُساهمة من طرف الفارس النبيل في الأحد نوفمبر 11, 2007 9:50 am

    UC Mosquito Research Program






    The UC Mosquito Research Program is a statewide special program within
    the University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.



    Formed
    in 1972, it is a multicampus program dedicated to stimulating and
    supporting research among the various academic departments and research
    organizations in the biology and control of mosquitoes and other
    vectors and vector-borne diseases. The main purpose of this research:
    to develop information, materials and techniques to assist state and
    local agencies in protecting the citizens of California from vectors
    and vector-borne diseases.


    -more-



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    الفارس النبيل
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام §*)§®¤*~ˆ°
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام  §*)§®¤*~ˆ°

    ذكر
    عدد الرسائل : 1913
    العمر : 30
    المكان : في الطريق إلى واحة الحب والامان
    الوظيفة : طالب في كلية العلوم
    الهوايات : القراءة- الشعر- الموسيقى- الكمبيوتر- كل ما هو مثير
    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/12/2006

    رد: UC Malaria Research

    مُساهمة من طرف الفارس النبيل في الأحد نوفمبر 11, 2007 9:51 am

    General Description


    The
    overall research focus of the lab is the population and molecular
    genetics of insect vectors of human disease. We have developed a
    program that pursues knowledge that may be applied to the control of
    vectorborne diseases but at the same time addresses critical issues in
    basic evolutionary genetics. An additional goal is the application of
    cutting edge molecular biological methods to problems at the level of
    populations. Research efforts involve both field and laboratory based
    research. Over the past several years we have conducted extensive
    fieldwork in Mali, Cameroon, Brazil, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. The
    Laboratory of Vector Genetics is directed by UC Davis medical entomologist Gregory Lanzaro,
    a professor in the Department of Pathology, MIcrobiology and Immunology
    (PMI) of the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California,
    Davis. He also directs the statewide UC Mosquito Research Program, a statewide program of the UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources and the UC Mosquito Research Program affiliate, the UC Malaria Research and Control Group.

    Laboratory specialist: Claudio Meneses

    Staff Research Associate: Arash Ng

    Assistant III, Mosquitoes: Victor Ramirez

    Assistant III, Sand Flies: Annie Ma

    International Scholar: Kiga Ng'habi

    Fogarty International Scholars (from Mali): Adamou Abdoulaye,
    Brehima Diallo and
    Cheick Amadou Coulibaly

    Ph.D. students: Lisa Reimer and Melody Schmid

    Post-doctorate fellow: Yoosook Lee

    Post-graduate researcher: Brian Butler

    Assistant researcher: Aurelie Andrianarivo

    Undergraduate student: Catelyn Singh

    Research


    Anopheles gambiae Population Genetics






    Anopheles gambiae (Photo by Anthony Cornel)



    Malaria
    is one of the most important infectious diseases of humans with more
    than 300 million clinical cases and 2-3 million deaths per year, most
    of these in Africa. Anopheles gambiae
    is one of the most potent malaria vectors known. This species has a
    broad geographic distribution, occurring throughout sub-Saharan Africa [Figure 2]. An. gambiae has three pairs of chromosomes, including two autosomes and X/Y sex chromosomes. Like Drosophila the chromosomes in some tissues exist as large polytene chromosomes with distinctive patterns of bands [Figure 3].
    Cytogenetic studies based on microscopic examination of the polytene
    chromosomes have revealed extensive polymorphism in the form of
    chromosome inversions [Figure 4].
    Earlier work describing the distribution of inversions suggested the
    existence of subpopulations, identified as “chromosomal forms,” among
    which gene flow is severely restricted [Figure 5].


    Our research on populations of An. gambiae
    in Africa is centered on understanding their complex genetic structure.
    This work is conducted both at field sites in Africa and in our lab
    located on the 6th floor of Storer Hall at UC Davis. Our fieldwork in
    Africa includes sites in both Mali and Cameroon [Figure 6]. Using microsatellite DNA markers [Figure 7]
    we have been able to show that levels of divergence (gene flow) among
    the chromosomal forms is not uniformly distributed over the genome,
    being significantly higher at loci within inversions compared to
    elsewhere in the genome [Figure 8].
    These results are important because (1) they suggest selection on loci
    contained within inversions and (2) that subpopulations may not be
    maintained by assortative mating alone. By analyzing DNA from sperm
    recovered from mated females [Figure 9]
    collected in the field we were able to demonstrate strong assortative
    mating with respect to chromosomal form, but that reproductive
    isolation is far from complete.


    Our current efforts include the development of methods for mapping the spatial boundaries of An. gambiae
    demes in Mali and Cameroon by incorporating genetic data into GIS maps
    (in collaboration with Dr. Charles Taylor, Biology Department and Dr.
    Xong-Kang Xue, Department of Geography both at UCLA). This effort
    involves extensive field work to obtain field collected mosquitoes from
    many locations in Mali and Cameroon [Figure 10].


    Sand Flies and Leishmaniasis






    Sand Fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Photo by Greg Lanzaro)



    This
    research project deals with understanding the complex interactions
    between insect vectors, pathogens and vertebrate hosts. We use sand
    flies and leishmaniasis as our model system, and are focusing on how
    these interactions may be understood at the molecular level by studying
    salivary proteins and the genes that encode them. The saliva of blood
    feeding insects contains a fascinating array of proteins that have
    potent anti-hemostatic activities. Hemostasis describes a collection of
    complex biochemical pathways that act to inhibit blood loss due to
    trauma. Hemostasis includes blood clotting, coagulation and
    vasoconstriction. In addition to their role as anti-hemostatic agents
    many of these substances are immunomodulators, that is they inhibit the
    host immune system. We work with one small protein, known as maxadilan
    (MAX) [Figure 11] that occurs in the saliva of the sand fly, Lutzomyia longipalpis [Figure 12]. This sand fly is the vector of the parasite, Lesihmania chagasi, causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America [Figure 13].
    MAX is a potent vasodilator (in fact the most potent vasodilator
    known). In addition, MAX inhibits macrophage function. It has been
    shown that MAX is important in the pathogenesis of L. chagasi [Figure 14] and that animals immunized with MAX are protected from L. chagasi infection [Figure 15]. It has therefore been proposed that MAX may be developed as an effective vaccine for leishmaniasis [Figure 16].
    We have conducted a series of experiments in which we have shown that
    specific anti-MAX antibodies are produced by animals and humans exposed
    to Lu. longipalpis bites [Figure 17] and that these antibodies neutralize the vasodilatory activity of MAX [Figure 18]. Consequently flies feeding on animals with MAX antibodies take smaller bloodmeals [Figure 19] and lay fewer eggs than those feeding on naive animals [Figure 20].
    We reasoned that flies in nature have likely evolved some means of
    avoiding the host immune system. We have demonstrated that MAX is
    hypervariable in natural fly populations [Figure 21] and that this variation represents antigenic variation [Figure 22]
    that has evolved in response to the challenge imposed by host
    antibodies. This is the first description of antigenic variation in a
    bloodfeeding arthropod.


    Lutzomyia longipalpis Population Genetics


    Our work on the population genetics of Lu. longipalpis was conducted in conjunction with the MAX work. We have described the genetic structure of Lu. longipalpis at over 20 sites throughout its range (from northern Argentina to southern Mexico) [Figure 23]. This work was based on isozymes and mitochondrial DNA [Figure 24].
    We have shown that at least four distinct population groups occur in
    nature and that these probably represent species. The species status
    has been confirmed by experimental hybridization, which culminated in
    the production of sterile hybrid males [Figure 25].
    In addition, close examination has revealed morphological features that
    are diagnostic for at least some of our putative species.


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    الفارس النبيل
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام §*)§®¤*~ˆ°
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام  §*)§®¤*~ˆ°

    ذكر
    عدد الرسائل : 1913
    العمر : 30
    المكان : في الطريق إلى واحة الحب والامان
    الوظيفة : طالب في كلية العلوم
    الهوايات : القراءة- الشعر- الموسيقى- الكمبيوتر- كل ما هو مثير
    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/12/2006

    رد: UC Malaria Research

    مُساهمة من طرف الفارس النبيل في الأحد نوفمبر 11, 2007 9:51 am

    Malaria: Topic Home




    Malaria
    is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria
    often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated,
    they may develop severe complications and die. Each year 350-500
    million cases of malaria occur worldwide, and over one million people
    die, most of them young children in sub-Saharan Africa.
    This
    sometimes fatal disease can be prevented and cured. Bednets,
    insecticides, and antimalarial drugs are effective tools to fight
    malaria in areas where it is transmitted. Travelers to a malaria-risk
    area should avoid mosquito bites and take a preventive antimalarial
    drug.


    _________________
    avatar
    الفارس النبيل
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام §*)§®¤*~ˆ°
    ~*¤®§(*§ المدير العام  §*)§®¤*~ˆ°

    ذكر
    عدد الرسائل : 1913
    العمر : 30
    المكان : في الطريق إلى واحة الحب والامان
    الوظيفة : طالب في كلية العلوم
    الهوايات : القراءة- الشعر- الموسيقى- الكمبيوتر- كل ما هو مثير
    تاريخ التسجيل : 25/12/2006

    رد: UC Malaria Research

    مُساهمة من طرف الفارس النبيل في الأحد نوفمبر 11, 2007 9:52 am

    Malaria















    Malaria is caused by a parasite called
    Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes.
    In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect
    red blood cells.


    Symptoms of malaria include fever,
    headache, and vomiting, and usually appear between 10 and 15 days after
    the mosquito bite. If not treated, malaria can quickly become
    life-threatening by disrupting the blood supply to vital organs. In
    many parts of the world, the parasites have developed resistance to a
    number of malaria medicines.


    Key interventions to control
    malaria include: prompt and effective treatment with artemisinin-based
    combination therapies; use of insecticidal nets by people at risk; and
    indoor residual spraying with insecticide to control the vector
    mosquitoes.


    _________________

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